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状语是修饰、限制谓语的词或词组。

Adverbial adjuncts are words or phrases that decorate or limit the predicate.

1.状语在动词谓语的前边 (An adverbial adjunct located before a verb predicate)

a.我今天去了银行。 (I went to the bank today.)

b.我只有一间行李。 (I only have one piece of luggage.)

2.状语在形容词谓语的前边(An adverbial adjunct located before an adjective predicate)

a.孩子很高兴 (The child is very happy.)

状语必需放在中心语前边。各类词和词组可以充当状语。结构助词“地”放在状语后边。副词基本作用是充当状语。比如:

The adverbial adjunct must be placed before the word modified. All kinds of words and phrases may act as an adverbial adjunct. The structural particle 地 is often placed after an adverbial adjunct. The basic purpose of adverbs is to act as adverbial adjuncts. For example,

a.他非常高兴。 (He is very happy.) 副词状语“非常”修饰谓语“高兴”。 (The adverb 非常 acting as the adverbial adjunct modifies the predicate 高兴.)

b.他经常锻炼身体。 (He frequently exercises.) 副词状语“经常”修饰动词“锻炼”。 (The adverb 经常 acting as an adverbial adjunct modifies the verb 锻炼.)

介词结构的主要作用也是充当状语。比如:

The main purpose of prepositional phrase is also to act as adverbial adjuncts. For example,

a.咱们从东边爬山。 (We will climb the mountain from the east side.) 介词结构“从东边”修饰动词“爬”。 (The prepositional phrase 从东边 modifies the verb 爬.)

名词、助动词、动词、形容词、代词、联合词组、主谓词组、偏正词组、数量词组、方位词组、固定词组等都可以充当状语。

Nouns, auxiliary verbs, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, coordinative phrases, subject-predicate phrases, endocentric phrases, numeral-measure word phrases, phrases of locality, and set phrases can all act as adverbial adjuncts.

 动词、双音形容词、联合词组、主谓词组、重叠性的数量词组和固定词组等充当状语时一般需要用助词“地”。比如:( When verbs, dissyllabic adjectives, coordinative phrases, subject-predicate phrases, duplicated numeral-measure word phrases, and set phrases act as the adverbial adjunct ordinarily the particle 地 must be used. For example:)

a.请注意地看。 (Please look carefully). 动词“注意”充当状语。 (The verb 注意 acts as the adverbial adjunct.)

b.我们仔细地看了。 (We looked carefully.) 双音形容词“仔细”充当状语。 (The dissyllabic adjective 仔细 acts at the adverbial adjunct.)

副词、介词结构、表示时间或场所的名词、单音形容词和代词充当状语时一般不能用“地”。比如:When adverbs, prepositional phrases, nouns expressing time or place, monosyllabic adjectives, and pronouns act as an adverbial adjunct, in general, 地 should not be used. For example,

a.他很喜欢冰淇淋。 (He really likes ice cream.) 副词“很”充当状语。 (Adverb 很 acts as the adverbial adjunct.)

b.东边来了个喇嘛。 (A lama came from the East.) 表示处所的名词“东边”充当状语。 (The noun of locality 东边 acts as the adverbial adjunct.)

c. 今天我很忙。(I am very busy today.) 表示处所的名词“今天”充当状语。 (The noun of locality 今天 acts as the adverbial adjunct.)

One Response so far.

  1. ROBERT RUSSELL says:

    I have replaced the Characters with Pinyin so I can learn from this lesson, and have sent you a copy.

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