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Aspects of an Action 动作的状态

动作的状态包括进行、持续和完成。汉语里常用副词和动态助词表示动作的状态。

The states of an action include progression, continuation, and completion. In Chinese adverbs and aspectual particles are often used to express the state of an action.

#1 . The Progressive Aspect of an Action 动作的进行

副词“正”、“在”、“正在”放在谓语动词前边表示动作正在进行。语气助词“呢”也可以加在句尾。比如:

The adverbs “正 、在”and “正在” placed in front of a predicate verb indicate that the action is in progress. The modal particle 呢 may also be added to the end of the sentence. For example,

1.我正在给你处理。 (I am taking care of it for you right now.)

“处理”的动作正在进行。 (The action of 处理 is progressing.)

2.我在休息。 (I am resting.)

动作“休息”进行。 (The action of resting is in progress:)

3.他睡觉呢。 (He is sleeping.)

语气助词“呢”表示“睡觉”的动作在进行,不需要状语。 (The modal particle 呢 expresses that the action 睡觉 is in progress. An adverbial adjunct is not needed.)

 4.他没睡觉,他在看书呢。 (He is not asleep, he is reading a book.)

否定式用副词“没”。 (The negative form uses the adverb 没.)

#2. The Continuous Aspect of an Action 动作的持续

动态助词“着”表示一个动作或动作结果的状态在持续。动态和动词的结果的状态可以发生在过去、现在或者未来。比如:

The aspectual particle “着” expresses that an action or the result of an action is continuing. The state of an action or the result of an action can be in the past, present, or future. For example,

1.门开着。 (The door is open.)

动作“开”已经完成了但是状态还持续。 (The action of the door opening has already been completed but the state still continues.)

2.他带着笔记本。 (He brought a notebook.)

动态助词“着”放在宾语“笔记本”前边。 (The aspectual particle 着 is placed before the object 笔记本.)

3.我们昨晚到的时候门还开着。 (Last night when we arrived it was still open.)

时间词“昨晚”表示事情已经过去。 (The use of 昨晚 indicates that the condition is in the past.)

#3.动作的完成The Perfect Aspect of an Action

谓语动词加动态助词“了”表示动作的实现或者完成。动作的完成状态可以发生在过去、现在或者未来,要用时间词或词组表示。比如:

When added after a predicate verb, the aspectual particle 了 expresses the completion of an action. A completed action may take place in the past, present, or future and a time word or phrase is used to express this. For example,

1.我成功了。 (I succeeded.)

加动态助词“了”在谓语动词“成功”的后边。 (The aspectual particle 了 is added after the predicate verb 成功.)

2.我到了大使馆。 (I have arrived at the embassy.)

放动态助词“了”在谓语动词“到”的后边,宾语“大使馆”前边。 (The aspectual particle 了 is placed after the predicate verb 到 and before the object 大使馆.)

3.我没买火车票。 (I did not buy a train ticket.)

否定式用副词“没”。 (The negative form uses the adverb 没.)

4.我洗手了。 (I washed my hands.)

在这个句子中“了”是语气助词。宾语“手”简单而且句尾加语气助词“了”所以动词后面的动态助词“了”省下。 (In this sentence 了 is a modal particle. The object 手 is simple and the sentence ends with the modal particle 了 so the aspectual particle 了 after the verb is left out.

5.我买到了机票。 (I bought the plane tickets.)

要放动态助词“了”在结果补语“到”后边。 (The aspectual particle 了 should be placed after the complement of result 到.)

6.你买到了没有? (Did you buy some?)

可以加“没有”提问题。 (没有 can be added to raise a question.)

#4.将来的动作Future Actions

可以用副词“要”和语气助词“了”表示一个动作将要发生。副词“要”充当状语。否定式用“还没”的格式。

The adverb “要” and the modal particle “了 “can be used to describe an action that will happen in the future. The adverb” 要” functions as an adverbial adjunct. The negative form uses the combination “还没”

1.老板快要退休了。 (Our boss is going to retire soon.)

2.我们孩子明年要考大学了。 (Next year our child will take the college entrance exam.)

3.我还没毕业。 (I have not graduated yet.)

4.他们快结婚了。 (They will get married soon.)

用副词“快”的时候可以省去“要”。用副词“快”的时候不能用具体时间词。 (If the adverb” 快 “is used then “要” can be omitted. Also, when using the adverb “快” a concrete time cannot be stated.)

#5过去的动作Past Actions

要表示动作过去经历在谓语动词后面加动态助词“过”。比如:

To describe an experience in the past the aspectual particle “过 “can be added after the predicate verb. For example,

1.我去过上海。 (I have been to Shanghai.)

宾语“上海”放在动态助词“过”后边。 (The object 上海 is placed after the aspectual particle 过.

2.我曾经学过物理学。 (I studied physics before.)

在谓语动词前面可以用副词“曾经”。 (The adverb 曾经 can also be used before the predicate verb.)

 

3.我没去过首都博物馆。 (I have never been to the Beijing Museum.)

否定式用副词“没”。 (Use the adverb 没 for the negative form.)

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