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A complement is a word or phrase placed after the predicate that adds information about the action experienced including time, probably, direction, outcome, degree, or quantity. For example:(补语是放在谓语后边的词或词组,补充说明动作经历的时间、可能、趋向、结果、程度或数量。比如:)

a.我说了两次。 (I said that two times.)  The complement “两次” is located after the verb predicate “说”.(补语“两次”放在动词谓语“说”的后边。)

b.他高一点。 The complement 一点 is placed after the adjective predicate “高”.(He is a little taller.) (补语“一点”放在形容词谓语“高”的后边。)

Usually, an adjective, verb, number, or complementary phrase acts as the complement. The structural particle 的 is often placed between the modified word and the complement. There are five types of complements:(一般形容词、动词、数量或补充词组充当补语。中心语和补语中间经常有结构助词“的”。补语有五种:)

1.结果补语 Complement of Result

A complement of result is a sentence element placed after a verb predicate to indicate the result of the verb. For example,(结果补语是在动词谓语后边表示动词结果的句子成分。比如:)

  a.家里的人都看见了。 (I saw all the people in my family.) 结果补语“见”表示动词谓语“看”的结果。 (The complement of result 见 indicates the result of the verb predicate 看.)

  b.我没听懂。 (I do not understand.)The complement of result 懂 indicates the result of the verb predicate 听. (结果补语“懂”表示动词谓语“听”的结果.)

Verbs, adjectives, and prepositional phrases can act as complements of result. For example: (动词、形容词和介词结构都可以充当结果补语。比如:)

 a.我写完了论文。 (I finished writing the thesis.) The verb 完 acts as the complement of result.(动词“完”充当结果补语。)

 b.我准备好了。 (I am properly prepared.)  The adjectvie 好 acts as the complement of result.(形容词“好”充当结果补语。)

 c.火车开往北京。 (The train is going to Beijing.)  The prepositional phrase 往北京 acts as the complement of result.(介词结构“往北京”充当结果补语。)

The negative form of a complement of result uses 没 in front of the verb. No word or phrase should be placed in between the verb and the complment, otherwise, the meaning will change. For example: ( 结果补语的否定式是在动词前边用“没”。在动词和补语中间不能不能放任何词或词组,否则意思改变了。比如:)

 a.我没看见。 (I did not see it.) You cannot say, 我看不见 because the meaning is that I cannot see it. (不能说“我看不见”因为意思是我不能看见。)

 b.我没听懂。 (I did not understand.) You cannot say 我听不懂 because the meaning is that I do not understand. (不能说“我听不懂”因为意思是我不懂。)

 2.程度补语 Complement of Degree

Complements of degree are placed after the predicate to indicate the degree of the action. For example:(程度补语是在谓语后边补充说明动作的程度的词或词组。比如:)

 a.他写得好。 (He writes well.) The adjective 好 acts as the complement of degree expressing the manner that the verb predicate 写 was performed. (形容词“好”充当程度补语,说明动词、谓语“写”的情态。)

 b.他跑得很快。 (He runs very quickly.) The endocentric phrase 很快 acts as the complement of degree describing the manner of the verb predicate 跑.(偏正词组“很快”充当程度补语,说明动词、谓语“跑”的情态。)

The structural particle 得 must be used between the modified word and the complement of degree. The negative is formed by placing the adverb 不 after the structural particle 得. For example,(中心语和程度补语之间需要用结构助词“得”。否定形式是用副词“不”在结构助词“得”后边。比如:)

 a.他写得不好。 (He does not write well.)

 b.他跑得不快。 (He does not run quickly.)

Adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, endocentric phrases, coordinative phrases, complementary word phrases, verb-object phrases, and subject-predicate phrases can all act as complements of degree. For example: (形容词、代词、副词、偏正词组、联合词组、补充词组、动宾词组和主谓词组都可以充当程度补语。比如:)

 a.他长得高。 (He has grown up tall.)  The adjective 高 acts as the complement of degree.(形容词“高”充当程度补语。)

 b.她唱得怎么样? (How is her singing?)The pronoun 怎么样 acts as the complement of degree. (代词“怎么样”充当程度补语。) 

c.他好极了。 (He is very good.)  The adverb 极了 acts as the complement of degree.(副词“极了”充当程度补语.)

 d.他学得太认真了。 (He studies so earnestly.) 偏正词组“太认真”充当程度补语。 (The endocentric phrase 太认真 acts as the complement of degree.)

If a predicate takes both an object and a complement of degree at the same time then the verb should be repeated with the complement of degree being placed after the second instance of the verb. For example:(如果谓语后边同时带宾语和程度补语,要重复动词,放程度补语在重复的动词后边。比如)

 a.他回答问题回答得很准确。 (He answered the question very accurately.) The verb predicate 回答 is repeated. (动词谓语“回答”是重复的。)

 b.他打球打得很远。 (He hit the ball a really long way.) 动词谓语“打”是重复的。 (The verb predicate 打 is repeated.)

副词“极了”是特殊的,不待助词“得”。比如:

The adverb 极了 is a special case of a complement of degree that does not require the particle 得. For example,

 a.天气热极了。 (The weather is really hot.) 不需要结构助词“得”。 (The structural particle 得 is not needed.)

 b.天气热得很。 (The weather is really hot.) 需要结构助词“得”。 (The structural particle 得 is needed.)

3.数量补语 Complement of quantity

 A complement of quantity is a word or phrase that is placed after the predicate to indicate frequency, duration, or height, length, etc. A complement of quantity that expresses the frequency of an action is called a complement of frequency. A complement of quantity that expresses the duration of an action is called a duration of frequency. A complement of quantity that expresses the height, length, etc of an action is called a complement of nominal measure. For example:(数量补语是放在谓语后边,说明动作行为的次数、时段或长度、高度等的词或词组。补充说明动作的次数的数量补语叫动量补语。表示动作的时段的数量补语叫时量补语。表示高度、长度等的数量补语叫名量补语。比如:)

 a.去两趟 (to go two times) The complement of frequency 两趟 expresses how many times the action 去 occurred.(动量补语“两趟”表示动作“去”发生了几次。)

 b.谈三小时 (to talk for three hours) The complement of duration 三小时 describes the duration of the action 谈. (时量补语“三小时”表示动作“谈”的时段。)

 c.大一岁 (one year older)  The complement of nominal measure 一岁 describes the duration of the adjective 大.(名量补语“一岁”表示形容词“大”的长度。)

Most often a numeral-measure word phrase acts as the complement of quantity. Predicates that have a complement of quantity can also take an object. For example:(大多数的数量补语由数量词组充当。带数量补语的谓语可以带宾语。比如:)

 a.这本书我看了三遍。 (I have read this book three times.) The subject 这本书 is in front of the predicate 看.(宾语“这本书”在谓语“看”的前边。)

 b.他学中文学了一年。 (He studied Chinese for one year.) 宾语“中文”在动词谓语“学”后边,谓语是重复的,时量补语“一年”放在重复的动词后边。 (The object 中文 occurs after the verb predicate 学, which is repeated. The complement of duration is placed after the repeated verb.

 c.他学了一年中文。 (He studied Chinese for one year.) 也可以不重复动词。 (It is also acceptable not to repeat the verb.)

 d.我昨天去了两趟商店。 (I went to the shop twice yesterday.) 带动量补语“两趟”的动词谓语“去”后边,名词宾语“商店”要放在动量补语后边。 (The noun object 商店 is placed after the complement of frequency 两趟 of the verb 去.)

 e.我碰到了他一次。 (I ran into him once.)  The pronoun object 他 is placed after the complement of frequency 一次 of the verb 碰.(带动量补语“一次”的动词谓语“碰到”后边,代词宾语“他”要放在动量补语前边。)

 4.趋向补语 Complement of Direction

A complement of direction is placed after a predicate verb to express the direction of an action. There are two types of complement of direction: simple and compound.(趋向补语是在谓语动词后边说明动作趋向的词或词组。趋向补语有两种:简单趋向补语和符合趋向补语。)

 a.Simple complements of direction: 来 and 去(简单趋向补语:来,去)

  b.Compound complements of direction: 上来、上去、下来、下去、进来、进去、出来、出去、回来、回去、过来、过去、起来.(符合趋向补语:上来、上去、下来、下去、进来、进去、出来、出去、回来、回去、过来、过去、起来)

The complements of direction 来 and 去 express the direction of the action relative to the speaker. For example,(趋向补语“来”、“去”补充说明方向是对说话人讲的。比如:)

 a.我拿来了。 (I took it.)  来 is a simple complement of direction and 拿 is the predicate verb.( “来”是简单趋向补语,“拿”是谓语动词。)

 b.他跳下去了。 (He jumped down.)下去 is a compount complement of direction and 跳 is the verb predicate. ( “下去”是复合趋向补语,“跳”时谓语动词。)

An object referring to a place or position should be placed between the predicate verb and the complement of direction. An object referring to a person or thing can either be placed before or after a simple complement of direction. For example:(表示处所方位的的宾语必须放在谓语动词和趋向补语之间。表示人或事物的宾语可以放在简单趋向补语前边或后边,都行。比如:)

 a.他回办公室去了。 (He went back to the office.) The object 办公室, expressing a location, is placed in between the predicate verb 回 and the complement of direction 去. (表示处所的宾语“办公室”放在谓语动词“回”和趋向补语“去”之间。 )

 b.他带来了一个朋友。 (He brought a friend along.)  The object 朋友, referring to people, is placed after the simple complement of direction 来.(表示人的宾语“朋友”放在简单趋向补 语“来”前边。)

5.可能补语 Complement of Potentiality

A potential complement is a word or phrase, placed after a predicate verb, that expresses whether an action can achieve a certain state.(可能补语是在谓语动词后边,表示动作能否达到某种结果或情况的词或词组。)

predicate verb+“得”或“不”+potential complement

Verbs and adjectives can act as potential complements. For example:

(谓语动词(predicate verb) + “得”或“不”  + 可能补语(potential complement)动词和形容词可以作可能补语。比如:)

 a.你打得开吗? (Can you open it?)  The verb 开 acts as the potential complement.(动词“开”充当可能补语。)

 b.我打不开了。 (I can’t open it.)  Negative form (否定式)

 c.你讲的清楚。 (You explained that clearly.) 形容词“清楚”充当可能补语。 (The adjective 清楚 acts as the potential complement.)

动词“动”、“了”、“下”是常见的可能补语。比如:

The verbs 动、了、and 下” are frequently used as potential complements. For example,

 a.我走不动。 (I can’t move.) The potential complement 动 expresses strength.)(可能补语“动”表示力量。)

 b.这座体育场坐得下九万人。 (This stadium can seat ninety thousand people.)  The potential complement 下 expresses sufficient space or capacity.) (可能补语“下”表示足够空间或容量。)

 c.我今天来得了。 (I can come today.)  The potential complement 了 expresses the probability to be able to carry out an action.( 可能补语“了”表示可能有能力进行动作。)

5 Responses so far.

  1. Ujang says:

    Thanks guys, I just about lost it looikng for this.

  2. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz reply as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. thanks

  3. ROBERT RUSSELL says:

    I need the pinyin for this to be useful. thanks.

  4. ROBERT RUSSELL says:

    It would be more helpful if there were pinyin, because I do not know characters. The rules are useful, but without the pinyin, I cannot see examples.

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