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单句Simple Sentences

句子是按照语法规定用词和词组构成,表示一个完整的意思。单句一般是用主语和谓语构成的。句子也可以主谓句和非主谓句两种。主谓句用主语和谓语两个部分。比如:

Sentences are formed from words and phrases using grammatical rules to express a complete idea. In general, simple sentences are composed of a subject and a predicate. Sentences can also be classified as either subject-predicate sentences or non subject-predicate sentences. Subject-predicate sentences use a subject section and a predicate section. For example:

1.他 学习物理学。 (He studies physics.) “他”是主语部分,“学习物理学”是谓语部分。 (他is the subject section and 学习物理学 is the predicate section.)
2.图书馆 很安静。 (The library is very quiet.) “图书馆”是主语部分,“很安静”是谓语部分。 (图书馆 is the predicate section and 很安静 is the predicate section.)

主谓句可以分成动词谓语句、形容词谓语句、名词谓语句和主谓谓语句。

Subject-predicate sentences can be divided into those with a verbal predicate, those adjectival predicate, those with a nominal predicate, and those with a subject-predicate phrase as the predicate.

非主谓句可以分无主句、独语句、简略句三类。比如:

Non subject-predicate sentences can be classified as subjectless sentences, one word sentences, and elliptical sentences. For example:

1.夏雨了。 (It’s raining.)
2.看! (Watch out!)

句子的用途也可以用分成简句。简句可以分陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句四种。

Simple sentences can also be classified by their use. Simple sentences can be classified as declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences, or exclamatory sentences.

动词谓语句Sentences with a Verbal Predicate

动词谓语句以动词为谓语,陈述主语做什么。一般动词谓语句有三种格式:

Sentences with a verbal predicate use a verb as the predicate to state what the subject does. In general, sentences with a verbal predicate have three forms:
1.主语 + 谓语(动词)          Subject + predicate (verb)

a.咱们商量。 (Let’s talk it over.)
“咱们”是主语部分,“商量”是谓语部分也是动词。 (咱们 is the subject section and 商量  is the predicate section, which is a verb.)

b.我走。 (I am going.)
“我”是主语部分,“走了”是谓语部分是用动词“走”。 (The subject section is 我 and the predicate section is 走了, which uses the verb 走.)

2.主语 + 谓语(及物动词) + 宾语
                         Subject + predicate (transitive verb) + object

a.我买菜。 (I am buying vegetables.)
“我”是主语、“买”是谓语也是及物动词、“菜”是宾语。 (我 is the subject, 买 is the predicate and is a transitive verb, and 菜 is the object.)

b.他学习英文。 (He studies English.)
“他”是主语部分、“学习”是谓语也是及物动词、“英文”是宾语。 (他 is the subject, 学习 is the predicate and also a transitive verb, and 英文 is the object.

3.主语 + 谓语(及物动词) + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语
                Subject + predicate (transitive verb) + indirect object + direct object

a.老师教我们英语。 (The teacher is teaching us English.)
“老师”是主语、“教”是谓语也是及物动词、“我们”是间接宾语、“英语”是直接宾语。 老师 is the subject, 教 is the predicate and also a transitive verb, 我们 is an indirect object, and 英语 is a direct object.

b.我给你钱。 (I will give you the money.)
“我”是主语、“给”是谓语也是及物动词、“你”是间接宾语、“钱”是直接宾语。 (我 is the subject, 给 is the predicate and also a transitive verb, 你 is an indirect object, and 钱 is a direct object.)

在谓语动词前边用否定副词“不”,表达“永远不”、“经常不”、“不愿意”等意思。如果谓语动词是“有”用否定副词“没”。如果动作还没发生或还没完成用否定副词“没”或“没有”。比如:

Use the negating adverb 不 before the predicate adverb to express “never in the future”, “not often”, “not willing”, etc. If the predicate verb is 有 then use the negating adverb 没. If the action has not yet occured or not yet been completed use the negative adverb 没 or 没有. For example:

1.这孩子不吃饭。 (The child is not eating.)
副词“不”表示孩子不愿意吃。 (The adverb 不 expresses that the child is not willing to eat.)

2.我没有车。 (I have not got a car.)
谓语动词时“有”。 (The predicate verb is 有.)

3.我还没去。 (I haven’t gone yet.)
动作还没有发生。 (The action has not yet taken place.)

形容词谓语句Sentences with an Adjectival Predicate

形容词谓语句以形容词为谓语,表示主语怎么样。它的基本格式是:

Sentences with an adjectival predicate use an adjective to describe what the subject is like.Its basic forms are:
1.【肯定式】主语 + 谓语(形容词)
[Affirmative form] Subject + predicate (adjective)

 a.人多。 (There are a lot of people.)
“人”是主语,“多”是谓语、形容词。 (人 is the subject, 多 is the predicate and is an adjective.)

b.天气热。 (The weather is hot.)
“天气”是主语,“热”是谓语也是形容词。 (天气 is the subject, 热 is the predicate and is an adjective.)

2.【否定式】主语 + 状语(副词“不”) + 谓语(形容词)
[Negative form] Subject + adverbial adjunct (adverb 不) + predicate (adjective)

a.汽车不新。 (The car is not new.)
“汽车”是主语,“新”是谓语也是形容词。 (汽车 is the subject, 新 is the predicate and is an adjective.)

b.他不聪明。 (He is not clever.)
“他”是主语,“聪明”是谓语、形容词。 (他 is the subject, 聪明 is the predicate and is an adjective.)

在谓语形容词经常用副词“很”充当状语,一般不表示程度。如果不用“很”经常有比较的意思。经常表达程度的副词有:“真、太、最、更、比较、十分、相当、特别、非常”。比如:

The adverb 很 is often used before the predicate adverb, acting as an adverbial adjunct but does not generally express degree. If the adverb 很 is not used then a comparison is usually meant. The adverbs 真、太、最、更、比较、十分、相当、特别、非常 are often used to express degree. For example,

1.他很高。 (He is tall.)
副词“很”不表示程度。 (The adverb 很 does not express degree.)

2.他高。 (He is taller.)
不用“很”有比较的意思。 (Without 很 a comparison is meant.)

3.他特别高。 (He is extremely tall.)
副词“特别”表示程度。 (The adverb 特别 expresses degree.)

名词谓语句Sentences with a Nominal Predicate

名词谓语句以名词或名词性偏正词组充当谓语,表达钱数、节日、职业、节气、日期、年龄等。名词谓语句一般又短又简单。比如:

Sentences with nominal predicates use a noun or a nominal endocentric phrase to express a sum of money, a festival, a profession, a solar term, a date, or a person’s age. Sentences with nominal predicates are usually short and simple. For example,
1.明天初一。 (Tomorrow is the first day of the lunar month.)
名词“初一”充当谓语。 (The noun 初一 acts as the predicate.)

2.爷爷九十多岁。 (Grandfather is over ninety years old.)
数量词组“九十多岁”充当谓语。 (The numeral-measure word phrase 九十多岁 acts as the predicate.)

3.这些橙子多少钱? (How much are these oranges?)
名词性偏正词组“多少钱”是谓语。 (The nominal endocentric phrase 多少钱 acts as the predicate.)

4.现在八点。 (It’s eight o’clock.)
数量词组“八点”充当谓语。 (The numeral-measure word phrase 八点 acts as the predicate.)

主谓谓语句Sentences with a Subject-Predicate Phrase as the Predicate

主谓谓语句以主谓词组为谓语。比如:

These sentences use a subject-predicate phrase as the predicate. For example,
1.他身体健康。 (He is healthy.)
代词“他”是主语,主谓词组“身体健康”是谓语。。 (The pronoun他 is the subject and the subject-predicate phrase 身体健康 is the subject.

2.这个学校水平很高。 (The standards at this school are very high.)
“这个学校”是主语,主谓词组“水平很高”是谓语。 (这个学校 is the subject and the subject-predicate phrase 水平很高 is the subject.)

无主句Subjectless Sentences

无主句没有主语部分。这种句子没有明确助于或不需要说主语。比如:

Subjectless sentences do not have a subject section. In this type of sentence there is either no clear subject or the subject does not need to be articulated. For example:

1.刮风了。 (It’s windy.)
不要用主语“天”。 (No need to articulate 天 as the subject.)

2.下课了。 (School’s out.)
不需要主语。 (No subject is needed.)

3.买单。 (Check, please.)
不需要用主语“我”。 (No need to use 我 as the subject.)

独语句One Word Sentences

独语句只包含一个词或偏正词组,表示时间地点、赞叹、突然发现、提醒、称呼、同意、反对、疑问等。比如:

One word sentences include only a single word or a single endocentric phrase. They are used to express time or place, praise, a discovery, a warning, to address someone, agreement, opposition, or a question. For example:

1.危险!(Danger)
提醒 (a warning)

2.怎么? (How is that?)
疑问 (a question)

3.好球! (Good shot!)
赞叹 (admiration)

4.好的。 (That’s fine.)
同意 (agreement)

简略句Elliptical Sentences

简略句由于语言环境清楚不说全句。对话时经常用简略句。比如:

In an elliptical sentence only a part of the whole sentence is spoken because the meaning can be understood from the context. Elliptical sentences are often used in conversation. For example:

1.(你买不买?)(我)不买。 (Are you going to buy it or not?) No. (I am not going to buy it.)
省去主语(The subject is ommitted.)

2.(你想吃什么?)(我想吃)饺子。 (What would you like to eat?) (I would like to eat) Dumplings.
省去主语和谓语。 (The subject and predicate are omitted.)

3.(谁去?)我(去)。 (Who is going?) Me. (I am going)
省去谓语。 (The predicate is omitted.)

2 Responses so far.

  1. Auth says:

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