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用特殊动词谓语的句子包括(Sentences using special verbal predicates):
1.“是”字句(是 Sentences)
2.“有”字句(有 Sentences)
3.“被”字句(被 Sentences)
4.“把”字句(把 Sentences)
5.存现句(Existential sentences)
6.兼语句(Pivotal sentences)
7.连动句(Sentence with verbs in series)
“是”字句是 Sentences
“是”字句用动词“是”作谓语。比如:
The 是 sentence uses the verb 是 as the predicate. For example,
1.他是我的朋友。 (He is my friend.)
“是”字句的基本格式是:主语 + “是” + 宾语。 (The basic form of the 是 sentence is: subject + 是 + object.)
2.你已经是专家了。 (You are an expert already.)
副词“已经”修饰动词“是”。 (The adverb 已经 decorates the verb 是.)
3.你不是老板。 (You are not the boss.)
“是”字句的否定式用副词“不”。 (The negative form of the 是 sentence uses the adverb 不.)
动词“是”后面不能带补语或者动态助词“了”、“过”、“着”。
The verb 是 cannot be followed by a complement or by the aspectual particles 了、过、or 着.

“有”字句有 Sentences

“有”字句以动词“有”充当谓语。基本格式是:主语 + “有” + 宾语。比如:
有 sentences use the verb 有 as the predicate. The basic form is: subject + 有 + object. For example,
1.他有两头大象。 (He has two elephants.)
这句是“有”字句的基本格式。 (This is the basic form of the 有 sentence).
2.我还有时间。 (I still have some time.)
副词“还”在“有”前边充当状语。 (The adverb 还, placed in front of 有 acts as an adverbial adjunct.)
3.我没有钱。 (I do not have any money.)
否定式是在“有”前边放副词“没”。 (Place the 没 in front of 有 to construct the negative form.
4.我没零钱。 (I don’t have any small change.)
宾语简单时,否定式可以省去“有”。 (When the object is simple, the negative form can omit 有.)

“被”字句被Sentences
“被”字句由表示被动的介词“被”和宾语作状语。基本格式是:
In a 被sentence the passive preposition 被 and its object act as an adverbial adjunct. The basic form is
受事者(主语) + “被”施事者(状语) + 动词(谓语) + 其他成分
Receiver (subject) + 被 agent (adverbial adjunct) + vebr + other elements
比如For example:
1.他被经理批评了。 (He was critized by the manager.)
基本格式,主语“他”被施事者“经理”批评了(Basic form — the subject 他 is the receiver of the action 批评 by the agent 经理.)
2.那个姑娘被绑架了。 (That girl was kidnapped.)
有时施事者可以省去(坏人给绑架了)。 (Sometimes the agent of the action can be omitted — kidnapped by bad guys.)
3.工人的罢工被公司粉碎了。 (The workers’ strike was broken by the company.)
谓语(粉碎)必须是及物动词(The predicate [粉碎] must be a transitive verb.)

“把”字句把 Sentences
“把”字句由介词“把”及其宾语作状语的动词谓语。这种句子强调某人、事物产生某种结果或影响。“把”字句的主语必须是施事者。“把”字句的基本格式是:
The 把 sentence uses the preposition 把 with its object to act as an adverbial adjunct, which modifies a verb predicate. This kind of sentence places emphasis on a certain person or thing and the result or influence that it produces. The subject of a 把 sentence must be the agent of the action. The basic form of the 把 sentence is
施事者(主语) + “把”受事者(状语) + 动词(谓语)
Agent of the action (subject) + 把 reciever (adverbial adjunct) + verb (predicate)
比如For example:
1.她把雨伞丢了。 (She lost the umbrella.)
这是“把”字句的基本格式。施事者(主语)是“她”。 (This is the basic form of the 把 sentence. The subject and agent of the action is 她.)
2.他把那张单子撕了。 (He tore up that list.)
谓语动词(“撕”)一定是及物动词。 (The predicate verb, 撕 in this case, must be a transitive verb.)
3.我还没把衣服洗干净。 (I haven’t finished washing the clothes yet.)
“把”字句否定式要用副词“没”。 (The adverb 没 should be used in the negative form of the 把 sentence.)
不影响人或事物的动词不能充当“把”字句的谓语。比如:是、有、在、象、等于、知道、认识、觉得、怕、喜欢愿意、开始、结束、进、去、坐、站、等。有的谓语动词后面的结构复杂,必须用“把”字句。比如:
Verbs that do not affect people or things cannot function as the predicate in a 把 sentence. For example, 是、有、在、象、等于、知道、认识、觉得、怕、喜欢愿意、开始、结束、进、去、坐、站、等。 Some predicate verbs are followed by complex structures. In these cases 把 sentences must be used. For example,
1.我把省下的菜放在冰箱里。 (I put the leftover food in the fridge.)
动词“在”作谓语的结果补语时,后面有表示处所的宾语,必须用“把”字句。不能说“我放省下的菜在冰箱里”。 (When the verb 在 is used as a complement of result for a verb predicate taking an object expressing a location, a 把 sentence must be used. We cannot say, 我放省下的菜在冰箱里。)
2.她把两匹马牵到大门去了。 (She led two horses to the main gate.)
动词“到”作谓语的结果补语时,后面带表示处所的宾语,必须用“把”字句。 (When the verb 到 acts as the complement of result of the predicate and the object expresses a location then a 把 sentence must be used.)

存现句Existential Sentences
存现句没有主语而且句首用表示处所、时间的词或词组说明某处所、某时间存在、出现或者消失某人或事物。比如:
An existential sentence does not have a subject and the beginning of the sentence uses a place or time word or phrase to indicate the existence, appearance, or disappearance of a thing or person. For example,
1.昨天来了不少人。 (Quite a few people came yesterday.)
状语“昨天”表示时间,动词谓语“来”表示“不少人”出现了。 (The adverbial adjunct 昨天 expresses time while the verb predicate 来 expresses the appearance of 不少人
2.东边来了个喇嘛。 (A lama came from the East.)
状语“东边”表示方位,动词谓语“来”表示“喇嘛”的出现。 (The adverbial adjunct 东边 describes the location and the verb predicate 来 describes the appearance of a 喇嘛.

兼语句Pivotal Sentences
兼语句中有两个谓语,前边的谓语的宾语兼作后边谓语的主语。这个宾语叫兼语。兼语句的基本格式是:
A pivotal sentence has two predicates, the first of which has an object that serves as the subject for the second predicate. This object is called the pivot. The basic form of the pivotal sentence is:
主语 + 谓语1(动词) + 兼语 + 谓语2
Subject + predicate 1 (verb) + pivot + predicate 2
比如For example:
1.我请你们吃饭。 (I will treat you all to the meal.)
代词“你们”是谓语“请”的宾语也是谓语“吃”的主语,就是兼语。 (The pronoun 你们 is the object for the predicate and also the subject for the predicate 吃. It is the pivot.
2.老师叫我们唱歌。 (The teacher asked us to sing a song.)
兼语的谓语“唱”表示前边的谓语“叫”要达到的目的。 (The predicate 唱 of the pivot expresses the goal of the first predicate 叫.)
3.警察让司机停车。 (The policeman directed the driver to stop the car.)
兼语句前边的谓语一般是表示请求、使令等意思的动词。常见的动词有:“使、叫、让、请、禁止”等。 (The first predicate in pivotal sentences usually expresses a request, a command, etc. Commonly used verbs include 使、叫、让、请、禁止.)
连动句Sentences with Verb Constructions in Series
连动句有两个或两个以上动词或动词性词组,担任一个主语的谓语。连动句的基本格式是:
Sentences with verb constructions in series have two or more verbs serving as predicates for the same subject. The basic form for sentences with verb constructions in series is
主语 + 谓语1 + (宾语1) + 谓语2 + (宾语2)
Subject + predicate 1 + (object 1) + predicate 2 + (object 2)
比如For example:
1.他骑车走了。 (He took off riding a bicycle.)
第一个谓语是“骑”、第一个宾语是“车”、第二个谓语是“走”。 (The first predicate is 骑, the first object is 车, and the second predicate is 走.)
2.咱们到王府井玩去。
后面的动词“玩”表示前面的动词“到”的目的。 (The following verb 玩 expresses the purpose of the preceding verb 到.)
3.我今天不能去给你买票。 (I cannot go to buy you a ticket today.)
否定式用副词“不”或“没(有)” (The negative form uses the adverb 不 or the adverb 没(有).
4.咱们用中文讲。 (Let’s talk in Chinese.)
一定要把表示方式的谓语和宾语“用中文”放在前边。 (Predicates and objects expressing means, 用中文 in this case, must be placed in front.

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